Tradition holds that Charles the Great granted a charter to the Andorran people in return for fighting against the Moors. Overlordship of the territory was of the local count of Urgell and eventually to the bishop of the diocese of Urgell. In 988 Borrell II count of Urgell gave the Andorran valleys to the Diocese of Urgell when the count expanded to the south. Since then the Bishop of Urgell, locally known as the bishop of the la Seu d'Urgell, has owned Andorra.
Andorra did not have any type of protection and the Bishop of Urgell, who knew that the Count of Urgell wanted to reclaim the Andorran valleys, decided to ask for help and protection from the Lord of Caboet. In 1095, the Lord of Caboet and the Bishop of la Seu d'Urgell signed under oath the recognition of their sovereignty over Andorra. Arnalda, daughter of Arnau of Caboet, married the Viscount of Castellb and both became Viscounts of Castellb and Cerdanya. Years later their daughter, Ermessenda, married Roger Bernat II of the French Count of Foix. They became Roger Bernat II and Ermessenda I Counts of Foix, Viscounts of Castellb and Cerdanya and also sovereigns of Andorra.
In the eleventh century a dispute arose between the bishop of la Seu d'Urgell and Count of Foix. The conflict was resolved in 1278 by the signing of the first parage, with the mediation of Aragon, which provided that Andorra's sovereignty be shared between the count of Foix and the bishop of Urgell, in Catalonia. This gave the small principality its territory and political form.
Over the years the title passed to the kings of Navarre, and after Henry of Navarre became King Henry IV of France he issued an edict that established the head of the French state and the Bishop of Urgell as co-princes of Andorra.
In the period 181213, the First French Empire annexed Catalonia and divided it in four dpartements. Andorra was also annexed and made part of the district of Puigcerd.
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