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Egypt Country Information

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Egypt
Egypt Flag
Population: 80,471,869
Area: 1,001,450
Continent: AF
Capitol: Cairo
Currency: Pound (EGP)
Primary Languages Spoken: ar-EG,en,fr
Domain Name TLD: .eg
Phone Prefix: 20
Country Code (FIPS): EG
Neighboring Countries: LY,SD,IL(Libya )

Egypt Map
Egypt Map



Summary:
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's growing population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula

Geographical Coordinates:
27 00 N, 30 00 E

Climate:
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain:
vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Natural Resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc

Area Comparisons:
slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Coastline:
2,450 km

Growth Rate:
1.16%

Map Reference:
Africa

Egypt

Egypt Facts

Egypt is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Western Asia. Covering an area of about 1,010,000 square kilometers, Egypt borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.

Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East. The great majority of its estimated 82 million live near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers, where the only arable agricultural land is found. The large areas of the Sahara Desert are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with the majority spread across the densely-populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the world's most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx. The southern city of Luxor contains numerous ancient artifacts, such as the Karnak Temple and the Valley of the Kings. Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural nation of the Middle East.




Egypt Profile

Geography
Area: 1,001,450 sq. km. (386,000 sq. mi.); approximately equal to Texas and New Mexico combined.
Cities: Capital--Cairo (pop. estimated at 16 million). Other cities--Alexandria (6 million), Aswan, Asyut, Port Said, Suez, Ismailia.
Terrain: Desert plateau, except Nile valley and delta.
Climate: Dry, hot summers; moderate winters.

People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Egyptian(s).
Population (July 2011 est.): 82,079,636.
Annual population growth rate (2011 est.): 1.96%.
Ethnic groups (2006 census): Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4%.
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic Christian 9%, other Christian 1%.
Languages: Arabic (official), English, French.
Education: Years compulsory--ages 6-15. Literacy--total adult 71.4%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2011 est.)--25.2 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy (2011 est.)--72.66 years.

Government
Type: Republic.
Independence: 1922.
Constitution: Egypt is operating under a constitutional decree from March 2011. A new constitution is set to be drafted in 2012.
Branches: Executive—President (The Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces has held presidential authority since February 2011 and is slated to hand over that function to a new president once presidential elections are held, likely by June 30, 2012), Prime Minister, Cabinet. Legislative--People's Assembly (498 elected members and up to 10 presidentially appointed), and Shura (consultative) Council (180 elected members, and 90 presidentially appointed). The two houses of Egypt's parliament—the People's Assembly and the Shura Council—were dissolved in February 2011, but will be seated again in 2012 after elections are completed for each house.
Administrative subdivisions: 27 governorates.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.

Economy
GDP (OER) (FY 2010 est.): $218.5 billion.
GDP (PPP) (FY 2010 est.): $497.8 billion.
Annual growth rate (Projected FY 2011 est.): 1.2%.
Per capita GDP (PPP, FY 2010 est.): $6,200.
Natural resources: Petroleum and natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc.
Agriculture: Products--cotton, rice, onions, beans, citrus fruits, wheat, corn, barley, sugar.
Industry: Types--food processing, textiles, tourism, chemicals, petrochemicals, construction, light manufacturing, iron and steel products, aluminum, cement, military equipment.
Trade (FY 2010): Exports--$25.34 billion: petroleum, clothing and textiles, cotton, fruits and vegetables, manufactured goods. Major markets--EU, U.S., Middle East. Imports--$51.54 billion: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, livestock, food and beverages, paper and wood products, chemicals. Major suppliers--EU, U.S., China.

PEOPLE AND

Egypt History


Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world and the second-most populous on the African continent. Nearly all of the country's 80 million people live in the following locations: Cairo and Alexandria; elsewhere on the banks of the Nile; in the Nile delta, which fans out north of Cairo; and along the Suez Canal. These regions are among the world's most densely populated, containing an average of over 3,820 persons per square mile (1,540 per sq. km.), as compared to about 200 persons per sq. mi. for the country as a whole.

Small communities spread throughout the desert regions of Egypt are clustered around oases and historic trade and transportation routes. The government has tried with mixed success to encourage migration to newly irrigated land reclaimed from the desert. However, the proportion of the population living in rural areas has continued to decrease as people move to the cities in search of employment and a higher standard of living.

The Egyptians are a fairly homogeneous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Ethnic minorities include a small number of Bedouin Arab nomads in the eastern and western deserts and in the Sinai, as well as some 50,000-100,000 Nubians clustered along the Nile in Upper (southern) Egypt.

The literacy rate is about 71.4% of the adult population. Education is free through university and compulsory from ages 6 through 15. Rates of primary and secondary education have strengthened in recent years. 93% of children enter primary school today, compared with 87% in 1994. Major universities include Cairo University (100,000 students), Alexandria University, and the 1,000-year-old Al-Azhar University, one of the world's major centers of Islamic learning.

Egypt's vast and rich literature constitutes an important cultural element in the life of the country and in the Arab world as a whole. Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature, and the forms they developed have been widely imitated. Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was the first Arab to win the Nobel prize for literature. Egyptian books and films are available throughout the Middle East.

Egypt has endured as a unified state for more than 5,000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for much longer. Egyptians take pride in their "pharaonic heritage" and in their descent from what they consider mankind's earliest civilization. The Arabic word for Egypt is Misr, which originally connoted "civilization" or "metropolis."

Archeological findings show that primitive tribes lived along the Nile long before the dynastic history of the pharaohs began. By 6000 B.C., organized agriculture had appeared.

In about 3100 B.C., Egypt was united under a ruler known as Mena, or Menes, who inaugurated the 30 pharaonic dynasties into which Egypt's ancient history is divided--the Old and the Middle Kingdoms and the New Empire. The pyramids at Giza (near Cairo), which were built in the fourth dynasty, testify to the power of the pharaonic religion and state. The Great Pyramid, the tomb of Pharaoh Khufu (also known as Cheops), is the only surviving monument of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Ancient Egypt reached the peak of its power, wealth, and territorial extent in the period called the New Empire (1567-1085 B.C.).

Persian, Greek, Roman, and Arab Conquerors
In 525 B.C., Cambyses, the son of Cyrus the Great, led a Persian invasion force that dethroned the last pharaoh of the 26th dynasty. The country remained a Persian province until conquered by Alexander the Great in 322 B.C., ushering in Ptolemaic rule in Egypt that lasted for nearly 300 years.

Following a brief Persian reconquest, Egypt was invaded and conquered by Arab forces in 642 A.D. A process of Arabization and Islamization ensued. Although a Coptic Christian minority remained--and constitutes about 10% of the population today--the Arab language inexorably supplanted the indigenous Coptic tongue. For the next 1,300 years, a succession of Arab, Mameluke, and Ottoman caliphs, beys, and sultans ruled the country.

European Influence
The Ottoman Turks controlled Egypt from 1517 until 1882, except for a brief period of French rule under Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1805, Mohammed Ali, commander of an Albanian contingent of Ottoman troops, won autonomy from the Ottoman Empire and foundedthe dynasty that ruled Egypt until his great-great grandson, Farouk , was overthrown in 1952. Mohammed Ali ruled Egypt until 1848, ushering in the modern history of Egypt. The rapid growth of Cairo as an urban center began in the reign of Ismail (1863-79). Eager to modernize the capital, he ordered the construction of a European-style city to the west of the medieval core. The Suez Canal was completed in Ismail's reign in 1869, and its completion was celebrated by many events, including the commissioning of Verdi's "Aida" for a new opera house and the building of great palaces, such as the Omar Khayyam (originally constructed to entertain the French Empress Eugenie, and now the central section of the Cairo Marriott Hotel).

In 1882, British expeditionary forces crushed an Egyptian revolt led by Ahmed Orabi Pasha, marking the beginning of British occupation and the virtual inclusion of Egypt within the British Empire. Egypt became independent from the British Empire in 1922. British influence, however, continued to dominate Egypt's political life.

Between 1922 and 1952, three main political forces competed with one another: the Wafd, a broadly-based nationalist political organization strongly opposed to British influence; King Fuad, whom the British had installed during World War I; and the British themselves, who were determined to maintain control over the Suez Canal. Other political forces emerging in this period included the Communist Party (1925) and the Muslim Brotherhood (1928), which eventually became a potent political and religious force.

During World War II, British troops used Egypt as a base for Allied operations throughout the region. British troops were withdrawn to the Suez Canal area in 1947, but nationalist, anti-British feelings continued to grow after the war. On July 22-23, 1952, a group of disaffected army officers (the "Free Officers") led by Lt. Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew King Farouk, whom the military blamed for Egypt's poor performance in the 1948 war with Israel. Following a brief experiment with civilian rule, they abrogated the 1923 constitution and declared Egypt a republic on June 19, 1953. Nasser evolved into a charismatic leader, not only of Egypt, but of the Arab world, promoting and implementing "Arab socialism." He nationalized much of Egypt's economy.

Nasser helped establish the Non-Aligned Movement of developing countries in September 1961, and continued to be a leading force in the movement until his death in 1970. When the United States held up military sales in reaction to Egyptian neutrality toward Moscow, Nasser concluded a seminal arms deal with Czechoslovakia in September 1955.

When the U.S. and the World Bank withdrew their offer to help finance the Aswan High Dam in mid-1956, Nasser nationalized the privately owned Suez Canal Company. The crisis that followed, exacerbated by growing tensions with Israel over guerrilla attacks from Gaza and Israeli reprisals, resulted in the invasion of Egypt that October by France, Britain, and Israel; U.S. political intervention helped reverse the invasion, and the Canal remained nationalized.

Nasser's domestic policies were frequently oppressive, yet generally popular. All opposition was stamped out, and opponents of the regime frequently were imprisoned without trial. Nasser's foreign and military policies helped provoke the Israeli attack of June 1967 that virtually destroyed Egypt's armed forces along with those of Jordan and Syria. Israel also occupied the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights. Nasser, however, was revered by the masses in Egypt and elsewhere in the Arab world until his death in 1970.

After Nasser's death, another of the original "Free Officers," Vice President Anwar el-Sadat, was elected President. In 1971, Sadat concluded a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union, but a year later, ordered Soviet advisers to leave. In 1973, he launched the October war with Israel, in which Egypt's armed forces achieved initial successes but were driven back by Israeli counterattacks.

Camp David and the Peace Process
In a momentous change from the Nasser era, President Sadat shifted Egypt from a policy of confrontation with Israel to one of peaceful accommodation through negotiations. Following the Sinai Disengagement Agreements of 1974 and 1975, Sadat created a fresh opening for progress by his dramatic visit to Jerusalem in November 1977. This led to President Jimmy Carter's invitation to President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin to join him in trilateral negotiations at Camp David.

The historic Camp David accords were signed by Egypt and Israel and witnessed by the United States on September 17, 1978. The accords led to the March 26, 1979 signing of the Egypt-Israel Treaty of Peace, by which Egypt regained control of the Sinai in May 1982. Throughout this period, U.S.-Egyptian relations steadily improved, but Sadat's willingness to break ranks by making peace with Israel antagonized most other Arab states.

Domestic Politics after Camp David
Sadat introduced greater political freedom and a new economic policy, the most important aspect of which was the "infitah" or "open door." This relaxed government controls over the economy and encouraged private, including foreign, investment. Sadat dismantled much of the existing political machine and brought to trial a number of former government officials accused of criminal excesses during the Nasser era.

On October 6, 1981, Islamic extremists assassinated President Sadat. Hosni Mubarak, Vice President since 1975 and an air force commander during the October 1973 war, was elected President later that month. He was subsequently confirmed by popular referendum for four more 6-year terms; the most recent referendum took place in September 2005. Egypt was readmitted to the Arab League in 1989 after being expelled for reaching a peace agreement with Israel.

Between 1991 and 2011, Egypt undertook a domestic economic reform program to reduce the size of the public sector and expand the role of the private sector. Political reform stalled, however. The government repressed civil society and opposition groups and maintained Egypt's longstanding state of emergency. The first competitive presidential elections, held in 2005, were marked by low voter turnout and charges of fraud. Parliamentary elections in 2005 saw significant opposition gains but also violence, low turnout, fraud, and vote rigging. In one notable case, Ayman Nour, member of parliament and popular leader of the opposition Al-Ghad (Tomorrow) Party, was arrested in 2005 and ultimately sentenced to five years' imprisonment. He was released in 2009. Following parliamentary elections in 2010 that saw significant irregularities and pre-election restrictions, the ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) continued to dominate national politics by maintaining an overriding majority in the People's Assembly and Shura Council.
The Arab Spring in Egypt: Revolution at Tahrir Square
After an 18-day massive, popular revolution centered on Cairo's Tahrir (Liberation) Square, Hosni Mubarak was forced to resign as the President of Egypt on February 11, 2011. He relinquished the administration of power first to his Vice President and then to a transitional government led by the Egyptian military's Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), which then appointed a civilian prime minister and cabinet to run the Egyptian government.
In a March 19, 2011 referendum, Egyptians voted overwhelmingly to amend Egypt's constitution, thus setting the legal groundwork for democratic parliamentary and presidential elections. The referendum included amendments that set term limits for the president, affirmed judicial oversight of elections, and prevented the state of emergency from remaining in effect for longer than six months unless approved by a public referendum. It also provided for the establishment of a 100-member constituent assembly to draft a new constitution. In November 2011, Egyptians began voting in elections for Egypt's People's Assembly.
GOVERNMENT AND

Egypt Politics

Egypt's March 19, 2011 public referendum produced a temporary constitutional framework that empowers the SCAF to govern Egypt in the interim, with the goal of transferring power to a civilian government and drafting a new constitution in 2012.
Egypt's parliament is made up of a 508-seat People's Assembly (498 elected) and a 270-seat Shura Council (180 elected). Egyptians now vote in a mixed parallel proportional representation (PR) and individual candidate (IC) system, where two thirds of the parliament is elected by PR party lists and one third is elected by IC districts.
Egypt's judicial system is similar to European (primarily French) legal concepts and methods. The courts have demonstrated increasing independence, and the principles of due process and judicial review have gained greater respect since the January 25 Revolution. Egypt's legal code is derived largely from the Napoleonic Code. Marriage and personal status (family law) are primarily based on the religious law of the individual concerned, which for most Egyptians is Islamic Law (Sharia).
Principal Government Officials
Presidential authority is currently held by Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Prime Minister—Kamal El Ganzouri
Minister of Foreign Affairs—Mohamed Kamel Amr
Ambassador to the United States—Sameh Shoukry
Permanent Representative to the United Nations--Maged Abdel Fattah Abdelaziz

Egypt maintains an embassy in the United States at 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC, 20008 (tel. 202-895-5400). The Washington consulate has the same address (tel. 202-966-6342). The Egyptian Mission to the United Nations is located at 304 East 44th Street, New York, NY (tel. 212-305-0300). Egyptian consulates general are located at: 1110 Second Avenue, New York, NY, 10022 (tel. 212-759-7120); 1990 Post Oak Boulevard, Suite 2180, Houston, TX, 77056 (tel. 713-961-4915); 500 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 1900, Chicago, IL, 60611 (tel. 312-828-9162); and 3001 Pacific Avenue, San Francisco, CA, 94115 (tel. 415-346-9700).

NATIONAL SECURITY
Egypt's armed forces, among the largest in the region, include the army, air defense, air force, and navy. The armed forces inventory includes equipment from the United States, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, the former Soviet Union, and China. Equipment from the former Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern American, French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt. To bolster stability and moderation in the region, Egypt has provided military assistance and training to a number of African and Arab states. Egypt remains a strong military and strategic partner of the United States.

Egypt Economy

Egypt's March 19, 2011 public referendum produced a temporary constitutional framework that empowers the SCAF to govern Egypt in the interim, with the goal of transferring power to a civilian government and drafting a new constitution in 2012.
Egypt's parliament is made up of a 508-seat People's Assembly (498 elected) and a 270-seat Shura Council (180 elected). Egyptians now vote in a mixed parallel proportional representation (PR) and individual candidate (IC) system, where two thirds of the parliament is elected by PR party lists and one third is elected by IC districts.
Egypt's judicial system is similar to European (primarily French) legal concepts and methods. The courts have demonstrated increasing independence, and the principles of due process and judicial review have gained greater respect since the January 25 Revolution. Egypt's legal code is derived largely from the Napoleonic Code. Marriage and personal status (family law) are primarily based on the religious law of the individual concerned, which for most Egyptians is Islamic Law (Sharia).
Principal Government Officials
Presidential authority is currently held by Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Prime Minister—Kamal El Ganzouri
Minister of Foreign Affairs—Mohamed Kamel Amr
Ambassador to the United States—Sameh Shoukry
Permanent Representative to the United Nations--Maged Abdel Fattah Abdelaziz

Egypt maintains an embassy in the United States at 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC, 20008 (tel. 202-895-5400). The Washington consulate has the same address (tel. 202-966-6342). The Egyptian Mission to the United Nations is located at 304 East 44th Street, New York, NY (tel. 212-305-0300). Egyptian consulates general are located at: 1110 Second Avenue, New York, NY, 10022 (tel. 212-759-7120); 1990 Post Oak Boulevard, Suite 2180, Houston, TX, 77056 (tel. 713-961-4915); 500 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 1900, Chicago, IL, 60611 (tel. 312-828-9162); and 3001 Pacific Avenue, San Francisco, CA, 94115 (tel. 415-346-9700).

NATIONAL SECURITY
Egypt's armed forces, among the largest in the region, include the army, air defense, air force, and navy. The armed forces inventory includes equipment from the United States, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, the former Soviet Union, and China. Equipment from the former Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern American, French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt. To bolster stability and moderation in the region, Egypt has provided military assistance and training to a number of African and Arab states. Egypt remains a strong military and strategic partner of the United States.

Egypt Defense Program

Egypt's March 19, 2011 public referendum produced a temporary constitutional framework that empowers the SCAF to govern Egypt in the interim, with the goal of transferring power to a civilian government and drafting a new constitution in 2012.
Egypt's parliament is made up of a 508-seat People's Assembly (498 elected) and a 270-seat Shura Council (180 elected). Egyptians now vote in a mixed parallel proportional representation (PR) and individual candidate (IC) system, where two thirds of the parliament is elected by PR party lists and one third is elected by IC districts.
Egypt's judicial system is similar to European (primarily French) legal concepts and methods. The courts have demonstrated increasing independence, and the principles of due process and judicial review have gained greater respect since the January 25 Revolution. Egypt's legal code is derived largely from the Napoleonic Code. Marriage and personal status (family law) are primarily based on the religious law of the individual concerned, which for most Egyptians is Islamic Law (Sharia).
Principal Government Officials
Presidential authority is currently held by Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Prime Minister—Kamal El Ganzouri
Minister of Foreign Affairs—Mohamed Kamel Amr
Ambassador to the United States—Sameh Shoukry
Permanent Representative to the United Nations--Maged Abdel Fattah Abdelaziz

Egypt maintains an embassy in the United States at 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC, 20008 (tel. 202-895-5400). The Washington consulate has the same address (tel. 202-966-6342). The Egyptian Mission to the United Nations is located at 304 East 44th Street, New York, NY (tel. 212-305-0300). Egyptian consulates general are located at: 1110 Second Avenue, New York, NY, 10022 (tel. 212-759-7120); 1990 Post Oak Boulevard, Suite 2180, Houston, TX, 77056 (tel. 713-961-4915); 500 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 1900, Chicago, IL, 60611 (tel. 312-828-9162); and 3001 Pacific Avenue, San Francisco, CA, 94115 (tel. 415-346-9700).

NATIONAL SECURITY
Egypt's armed forces, among the largest in the region, include the army, air defense, air force, and navy. The armed forces inventory includes equipment from the United States, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, the former Soviet Union, and China. Equipment from the former Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern American, French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt. To bolster stability and moderation in the region, Egypt has provided military assistance and training to a number of African and Arab states. Egypt remains a strong military and strategic partner of the United States.

Egypt Foreign Relations

Geography, population, history, military strength, and diplomatic expertise give Egypt extensive political influence in the Middle East and within the Non-Aligned Movement as a whole. Cairo has been a crossroads of Arab commerce and culture for millennia, and its intellectual and Islamic institutions are at the center of the region's social and cultural development.

The Arab League headquarters is in Cairo, and the Secretary General of the League is traditionally an Egyptian. Former Egyptian Foreign Minister Nabil al-Araby is the present Secretary General of the Arab League. Former Egyptian Deputy Prime Minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali served as Secretary General of the United Nations from 1991 to 1996.

Egypt is a key partner in the search for peace in the Middle East and resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Sadat's groundbreaking trip to Israel in 1977, the 1978 Camp David Accords, and the 1979 Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty represented a fundamental shift in the politics of the region--from a strategy of confrontation to one of peace as a strategic choice. Egypt was subsequently ostracized by other Arab states and ejected from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989. Egypt played an important role in the negotiations leading to the Madrid Peace Conference in 1991, which, under U.S. and Russian sponsorship, brought together all parties in the region to discuss Middle East peace. In 1996, then-President Mubarak hosted the Sharm El-Sheikh "Summit of the Peacemakers" attended by President Bill Clinton and other world leaders. In 2000, he hosted two summits at Sharm El-Sheikh and one at Taba in an effort to resume the Camp David negotiations suspended in July of 2000, and in June 2003, Mubarak hosted President George W. Bush for another summit on the Middle East peace process. Throughout mid-2004, Egypt worked closely with Israel and the Palestinian Authority to facilitate stability following Israel's withdrawal from Gaza, which occurred in August and September of 2005. Prior to this, Egypt and Israel reached an agreement that allowed Egypt to deploy additional forces along the Philadelphi Corridor in an attempt to control the border and prevent the smuggling of weapons.

Egypt played a key role during the 1990-91 Gulf crisis. Egypt helped assemble the international coalition and deployed 35,000 Egyptian troops against Iraq to liberate Kuwait. The Egyptian contingent was the third-largest in the coalition forces, after the U.S. and U.K. In the aftermath of the Gulf war, Egypt signed the Damascus declaration with Syria and the Gulf states to strengthen Gulf security. Egypt continues to contribute regularly to UN peacekeeping missions, most recently in East Timor, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. In August 2004, Egypt was actively engaged in seeking a solution to the crisis in the Darfur region of Sudan, including the dispatch of military monitors. Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, Egypt, which has itself been the target of terrorist attacks, has been a key supporter of U.S. efforts against terrorists and terrorist organizations.

Egypt Additionalal Political Information

The United States and Egypt enjoy a strong and friendly relationship based on shared mutual interest in Middle East peace and stability, revitalizing the Egyptian economy and strengthening trade relations, and promoting regional security. Over the years, Egypt and the United States have worked together to expand Middle East peace negotiations, hosting talks, negotiations, and the Middle East and North Africa Economic (MENA) Conference. Multinational exercises, U.S. assistance to Egypt's military modernization program, and Egypt's role as a contributor to various UN peacekeeping operations continually reinforce the U.S.-Egyptian military relationship.

An important pillar of the bilateral relationship remains U.S. security and economic assistance to Egypt, which expanded significantly in the wake of the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty in 1979. U.S. military aid to Egypt totals over $1.3 billion annually. In addition, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has provided over $28 billion in economic and development assistance to Egypt since 1975. Early assistance focused on infrastructure, health, food supply, and agriculture. The Commodity Import Program, through which USAID provided hundreds of millions of dollars in financing to enable the Egyptian private sector to import U.S. goods between 1986 and 2008, was one of the largest and most popular USAID programs. Current programs focus on trade and investment; utilities; education; healthier, planned families; natural resources; democracy and governance; and other programs supported by the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI).

U.S. military cooperation has helped Egypt modernize its armed forces and strengthen regional security and stability. Under Foreign Military Financing (FMF) programs, the United States has provided F-4 jet aircraft, F-16 jet fighters, M-60A3 and M1A1 tanks, armored personnel carriers, Apache helicopters, antiaircraft missile batteries, aerial surveillance aircraft, and other equipment. The United States and Egypt also participate in combined military exercises, including deployments of U.S. troops to Egypt. Every other year, Egypt hosts Operation Bright Star, a multilateral military exercise with the U.S., and the largest military exercise in the region. Units of the U.S. 6th Fleet are regular visitors to Egyptian ports.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials
Ambassador—Anne Patterson
Deputy Chief of Mission--Marc Sievers
Economic/Political Affairs--Donald Blome
Consular Affairs--Roberto Powers
Management Affairs--Amy Hyatt
Public Affairs—Pat Kabra
USAID—Walter North
Defense Attache/Office of Military Cooperation—Maj. Gen. Joseph Lengyel
Foreign Commercial Service—Margaret Keshishian
Foreign Agricultural Service—Jonathan Gressel

The U.S. Embassy is located at 8 Kamal ElDin Salah St., Garden City, Cairo, Egypt, tel: [20] [2] 797-3300, fax [20] [2] 797-3200.




List of States / Privinces / Districts in Egypt


1. Muhafazat Suhaj
2. Muhafazat Shamal Sina'
3. Muhafazat Qina
4. Muhafazat Matruh
5. Muhafazat Kafr ash Shaykh
6. Muhafazat Janub Sina'
7. Muhafazat Dumyat
8. Muhafazat Bur Sa`id
9. Muhafazat Bani Suwayf
10. Muhafazat Asyut
11. Muhafazat Aswan
12. Muhafazat as Suways
13. Eastern Province
14. Muhafazat al Wadi al Jadid
15. Muhafazat al Qalyubiyah
16. Muhafazat al Qahirah
17. Muhafazat al Minya
18. Muhafazat al Minufiyah
19. Muhafazat al Jizah
20. Muhafazat al Isma`iliyah
21. Alexandria
22. Muhafazat al Gharbiyah
23. Muhafazat al Fayyum
24. Muhafazat al Buhayrah
25. Muhafazat al Bahr al Ahmar
26. Muhafazat ad Daqahliyah
27. Muhafazat al Uqsur



Egypt's Largest Cities

(Egypt's Most Populated Cities)


Top 100 Egypt cities shown of 128 total Egypt cities that are over 1,000 in population...

1. Cairo 7,734,614
2. Alexandria 3,811,516
3. Al Jizah 2,443,203
4. Port Said 538,378
5. Suez 488,125
6. Al Mahallah al Kubra 431,052
7. Luxor 422,407
8. Asyut 420,585
9. Al Mansurah 420,195
10. Tanda 404,901
11. Al Fayyum 306,393
12. Az Zaqaziq 285,097
13. Ismailia 284,813
14. Kafr ad Dawwar 267,370
15. Aswan 241,261
16. Qina 235,362
17. Halwan 230,000
18. Damanhur 227,943
19. Al Minya 227,150
20. Suhaj 209,419
21. Bani Suwayf 189,624
22. Banha 167,029
23. Idfu 166,102
24. Talkha 157,737
25. Kafr ash Shaykh 143,970
26. Mallawi 142,504
27. Dikirnis 137,542
28. Bilbays 129,211
29. Al `Arish 128,855
30. Jirja 128,250
31. Al Hawamidiyah 106,841
32. Idku 105,599
33. Bilqas Qism Awwal 103,596
34. Disuq 102,037
35. Abu Kabir 100,684
36. Qalyub 100,495
37. Akhmim 99,446
38. Al Matariyah 99,357
39. Al Ghardaqah 95,622
40. Zifta 92,667
41. Tahta 90,591
42. Samalut 90,465
43. Bush 86,608
44. Hawsh `Isa 85,352
45. Minuf 83,651
46. Ashmun 82,507
47. Manfalut 78,744
48. Damietta 76,839
49. Kafr az Zayyat 73,725
50. Abu Tij 71,257
51. Isna 69,335
52. Abnub 68,749
53. Al Qusiyah 68,394
54. Al Jamaliyah 68,381
55. Dayrut 67,788
56. Toukh 67,599
57. Al Manzilah 67,486
58. Rosetta 64,481
59. Awsim 63,862
60. Al Fashn 63,793
61. Fuwah 63,310
62. Faqus 62,821
63. Al Khankah 62,434
64. Marsa Matruh 62,042
65. Al Qurayn 61,730
66. Abu Qurqas 61,182
67. Al Manshah 61,134
68. Kousa 60,181
69. Kawm Umbu 59,787
70. Faraskur 58,284
71. Bani Mazar 58,153
72. Minyat an Nasr 56,951
73. Shibin al Qanatir 56,872
74. Al Qanatir al Khayriyah 56,302
75. Basyun 55,523
76. Samannud 54,980
77. Shirbin 54,676
78. Dishna 54,197
79. Farshut 53,851
80. Diyarb Najm 51,841
81. At Tall al Kabir 51,569
82. Tala 51,498
83. Ibshaway 51,173
84. Al Balyana 48,801
85. Ash Shuhada' 48,060
86. Sidi Salim 47,998
87. Juhaynah 47,821
88. Tamiyah 46,866
89. Mashtul as Suq 45,798
90. Al Hamul 45,798
91. Ain Sukhna 45,552
92. Itsa 45,269
93. Matay 45,215
94. Al Badari 44,132
95. Hihya 43,432
96. Al Qanayat 42,912
97. Quwaysina 42,708
98. Madinat Sittah Uktubar 41,930
99. Abu al Matamir 41,302
100. Naj` Hammadi 41,184

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