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Pakistan Country Information

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Pakistan
Pakistan Flag
Population: 184,404,791
Area: 803,940
Continent: AS
Capitol: Islamabad
Currency: Rupee (PKR)
Primary Languages Spoken: ur-PK,en-PK,pa,sd,ps,brh
Domain Name TLD: .pk
Phone Prefix: 92
Country Code (FIPS): PK
Neighboring Countries: CN,AF,IR,IN(Comoros Afghanistan Iran India )

Pakistan Map
Pakistan Map



Summary:
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking small steps to put relations back on track. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control domestic insurgents, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan.

Location:
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

Geographical Coordinates:
30 00 N, 70 00 E

Climate:
mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

Terrain:
flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

Natural Resources:
land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Area Comparisons:
slightly less than twice the size of California

Coastline:
1,046 km

Growth Rate:
2.55%

Map Reference:
Asia

Pakistan

Pakistan Facts

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia and borders Central Asia and the Middle East. It has a 1,046 kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south, and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. Tajikistan also lies adjacent to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. In recent times, Pakistan has been called part of the Greater Middle East.

The region forming modern Pakistan was home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and then, successively, recipient of ancient Vedic, Persian, Indo-Greek and Islamic cultures. The area has witnessed invasions and settlement by the Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Afghans, Mongols and the British. It was a part of British Raj from 1858 to 1947, when the Pakistan Movement for a state for Muslims, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League resulted in the independence and creation of the state of Pakistan, that comprised the provinces of Sindh, North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab, Balochistan and East Bengal. With the adoption of its constitution in 1956, Pakistan became an Islamic republic. In 1971, a civil war in East Pakistan resulted in the independence of Bangladesh. Pakistan's history has been characterized by periods of economic growth, military rule and political instability.

Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world and has the second largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia. The country is listed among the Next Eleven"" economies. Pakistan is a founding member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Developing 8 Countries, G20 developing nations and the Economic Cooperation Organisation. It is also a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, World Trade Organisation, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, G33 developing countries, Group of 77 developing nations, major non-NATO ally of the United States and is a nuclear state."




Pakistan Profile

Geography
Area: 803,943 sq. km. (310,527 sq. mi.); almost twice the size of California.
Cities: Capital--The city of Islamabad (pop. 800,000) and adjacent Rawalpindi (1,406, 214) comprise the national capital area with a combined population of 3.7 million. Other cities--Karachi (11,624,219) (2005 est.), Lahore (6,310,888) (2005 est.), Faisalabad (1,977,246) and Hyderabad (1,151,274).

People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Pakistan(i).
Population (July 2008 est.): 167,762,040.
Annual population growth rate (2008 est.): 1.81%.
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun, Baloch, Muhajir (i.e., Urdu-speaking immigrants from India and their descendants), Saraiki, and Hazara.
Religions: Muslim 97%; small minorities of Christians, Hindus, and others.
Languages: Urdu (national and official), English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Baloch, Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki (Punjabi variant).
Education: Literacy (2005 est.)--49.9%; male 63%; female 36%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2008 est.)--66.95/1,000. Life expectancy (2008 est.)--men 63.07 yrs., women 65.24 yrs.
Work force (2004 est.): Agriculture--42%; services--38%; industry--20%.

Government
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 14, 1947.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government). Legislative--bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora (100-seat Senate, 342-seat National Assembly). Judicial--Supreme Court, provincial high courts, Federal Islamic (or Shari'a) Court.
Political parties: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), Pakistan Muslim League (PML), Muttahid Majlis-e-Amal (umbrella group) (MMA), and Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Political subdivisions: 4 provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province or NWFP)); also the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (composed of 7 tribal agencies--Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Kurram, Orakzai, North Waziristan, and South Waziristan) and the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region (Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas).

Economy
Real GDP growth rate (2009 est.): 2.7%.
Per capita GDP (year ending 2009, purchasing power parity): $2,600.
Natural resources: Arable land, natural gas, limited oil, substantial hydropower potential, coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton.
Industry: Types--textiles & apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, shrimp, fertilizer, and paper products.
Trade (2009 est.): Exports--$17.87 billion: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, carpets, rugs, chemicals and manufactures. Major partners (2008)--U.S. 16%, United Arab Emirates 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, U.K. 4.5%, China 4.2%. Imports--$28.31 billion: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, paper and paper board, transportation equipment, edible oils, pulses, iron and steel, tea. Major partners (2008)--China 14.1%, Saudi Arabia 12%, U.A.E. 11.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, India 4.8%, U.S. 4.7%, Malaysia 4.1%.

Pakistan People

Geography
Area: 803,943 sq. km. (310,527 sq. mi.); almost twice the size of California.
Cities: Capital--The city of Islamabad (pop. 800,000) and adjacent Rawalpindi (1,406, 214) comprise the national capital area with a combined population of 3.7 million. Other cities--Karachi (11,624,219) (2005 est.), Lahore (6,310,888) (2005 est.), Faisalabad (1,977,246) and Hyderabad (1,151,274).

People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Pakistan(i).
Population (July 2008 est.): 167,762,040.
Annual population growth rate (2008 est.): 1.81%.
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun, Baloch, Muhajir (i.e., Urdu-speaking immigrants from India and their descendants), Saraiki, and Hazara.
Religions: Muslim 97%; small minorities of Christians, Hindus, and others.
Languages: Urdu (national and official), English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Baloch, Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki (Punjabi variant).
Education: Literacy (2005 est.)--49.9%; male 63%; female 36%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2008 est.)--66.95/1,000. Life expectancy (2008 est.)--men 63.07 yrs., women 65.24 yrs.
Work force (2004 est.): Agriculture--42%; services--38%; industry--20%.

Government
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 14, 1947.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government). Legislative--bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora (100-seat Senate, 342-seat National Assembly). Judicial--Supreme Court, provincial high courts, Federal Islamic (or Shari'a) Court.
Political parties: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), Pakistan Muslim League (PML), Muttahid Majlis-e-Amal (umbrella group) (MMA), and Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Political subdivisions: 4 provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province or NWFP)); also the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (composed of 7 tribal agencies--Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Kurram, Orakzai, North Waziristan, and South Waziristan) and the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region (Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas).

Economy
Real GDP growth rate (2009 est.): 2.7%.
Per capita GDP (year ending 2009, purchasing power parity): $2,600.
Natural resources: Arable land, natural gas, limited oil, substantial hydropower potential, coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton.
Industry: Types--textiles & apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, shrimp, fertilizer, and paper products.
Trade (2009 est.): Exports--$17.87 billion: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, carpets, rugs, chemicals and manufactures. Major partners (2008)--U.S. 16%, United Arab Emirates 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, U.K. 4.5%, China 4.2%. Imports--$28.31 billion: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, paper and paper board, transportation equipment, edible oils, pulses, iron and steel, tea. Major partners (2008)--China 14.1%, Saudi Arabia 12%, U.A.E. 11.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, India 4.8%, U.S. 4.7%, Malaysia 4.1%.

Pakistan History

Geography
Area: 803,943 sq. km. (310,527 sq. mi.); almost twice the size of California.
Cities: Capital--The city of Islamabad (pop. 800,000) and adjacent Rawalpindi (1,406, 214) comprise the national capital area with a combined population of 3.7 million. Other cities--Karachi (11,624,219) (2005 est.), Lahore (6,310,888) (2005 est.), Faisalabad (1,977,246) and Hyderabad (1,151,274).

People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Pakistan(i).
Population (July 2008 est.): 167,762,040.
Annual population growth rate (2008 est.): 1.81%.
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun, Baloch, Muhajir (i.e., Urdu-speaking immigrants from India and their descendants), Saraiki, and Hazara.
Religions: Muslim 97%; small minorities of Christians, Hindus, and others.
Languages: Urdu (national and official), English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Baloch, Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki (Punjabi variant).
Education: Literacy (2005 est.)--49.9%; male 63%; female 36%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2008 est.)--66.95/1,000. Life expectancy (2008 est.)--men 63.07 yrs., women 65.24 yrs.
Work force (2004 est.): Agriculture--42%; services--38%; industry--20%.

Government
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 14, 1947.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government). Legislative--bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora (100-seat Senate, 342-seat National Assembly). Judicial--Supreme Court, provincial high courts, Federal Islamic (or Shari'a) Court.
Political parties: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), Pakistan Muslim League (PML), Muttahid Majlis-e-Amal (umbrella group) (MMA), and Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Political subdivisions: 4 provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province or NWFP)); also the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (composed of 7 tribal agencies--Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Kurram, Orakzai, North Waziristan, and South Waziristan) and the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region (Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas).

Economy
Real GDP growth rate (2009 est.): 2.7%.
Per capita GDP (year ending 2009, purchasing power parity): $2,600.
Natural resources: Arable land, natural gas, limited oil, substantial hydropower potential, coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton.
Industry: Types--textiles & apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, shrimp, fertilizer, and paper products.
Trade (2009 est.): Exports--$17.87 billion: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, carpets, rugs, chemicals and manufactures. Major partners (2008)--U.S. 16%, United Arab Emirates 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, U.K. 4.5%, China 4.2%. Imports--$28.31 billion: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, paper and paper board, transportation equipment, edible oils, pulses, iron and steel, tea. Major partners (2008)--China 14.1%, Saudi Arabia 12%, U.A.E. 11.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, India 4.8%, U.S. 4.7%, Malaysia 4.1%.

Pakistan Government

Geography
Area: 803,943 sq. km. (310,527 sq. mi.); almost twice the size of California.
Cities: Capital--The city of Islamabad (pop. 800,000) and adjacent Rawalpindi (1,406, 214) comprise the national capital area with a combined population of 3.7 million. Other cities--Karachi (11,624,219) (2005 est.), Lahore (6,310,888) (2005 est.), Faisalabad (1,977,246) and Hyderabad (1,151,274).

People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Pakistan(i).
Population (July 2008 est.): 167,762,040.
Annual population growth rate (2008 est.): 1.81%.
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun, Baloch, Muhajir (i.e., Urdu-speaking immigrants from India and their descendants), Saraiki, and Hazara.
Religions: Muslim 97%; small minorities of Christians, Hindus, and others.
Languages: Urdu (national and official), English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Baloch, Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki (Punjabi variant).
Education: Literacy (2005 est.)--49.9%; male 63%; female 36%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2008 est.)--66.95/1,000. Life expectancy (2008 est.)--men 63.07 yrs., women 65.24 yrs.
Work force (2004 est.): Agriculture--42%; services--38%; industry--20%.

Government
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 14, 1947.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government). Legislative--bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora (100-seat Senate, 342-seat National Assembly). Judicial--Supreme Court, provincial high courts, Federal Islamic (or Shari'a) Court.
Political parties: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), Pakistan Muslim League (PML), Muttahid Majlis-e-Amal (umbrella group) (MMA), and Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Political subdivisions: 4 provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province or NWFP)); also the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (composed of 7 tribal agencies--Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Kurram, Orakzai, North Waziristan, and South Waziristan) and the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region (Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas).

Economy
Real GDP growth rate (2009 est.): 2.7%.
Per capita GDP (year ending 2009, purchasing power parity): $2,600.
Natural resources: Arable land, natural gas, limited oil, substantial hydropower potential, coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton.
Industry: Types--textiles & apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, shrimp, fertilizer, and paper products.
Trade (2009 est.): Exports--$17.87 billion: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, carpets, rugs, chemicals and manufactures. Major partners (2008)--U.S. 16%, United Arab Emirates 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, U.K. 4.5%, China 4.2%. Imports--$28.31 billion: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, paper and paper board, transportation equipment, edible oils, pulses, iron and steel, tea. Major partners (2008)--China 14.1%, Saudi Arabia 12%, U.A.E. 11.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, India 4.8%, U.S. 4.7%, Malaysia 4.1%.

Pakistan Politics

Geography
Area: 803,943 sq. km. (310,527 sq. mi.); almost twice the size of California.
Cities: Capital--The city of Islamabad (pop. 800,000) and adjacent Rawalpindi (1,406, 214) comprise the national capital area with a combined population of 3.7 million. Other cities--Karachi (11,624,219) (2005 est.), Lahore (6,310,888) (2005 est.), Faisalabad (1,977,246) and Hyderabad (1,151,274).

People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Pakistan(i).
Population (July 2008 est.): 167,762,040.
Annual population growth rate (2008 est.): 1.81%.
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun, Baloch, Muhajir (i.e., Urdu-speaking immigrants from India and their descendants), Saraiki, and Hazara.
Religions: Muslim 97%; small minorities of Christians, Hindus, and others.
Languages: Urdu (national and official), English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Baloch, Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki (Punjabi variant).
Education: Literacy (2005 est.)--49.9%; male 63%; female 36%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2008 est.)--66.95/1,000. Life expectancy (2008 est.)--men 63.07 yrs., women 65.24 yrs.
Work force (2004 est.): Agriculture--42%; services--38%; industry--20%.

Government
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 14, 1947.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government). Legislative--bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora (100-seat Senate, 342-seat National Assembly). Judicial--Supreme Court, provincial high courts, Federal Islamic (or Shari'a) Court.
Political parties: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), Pakistan Muslim League (PML), Muttahid Majlis-e-Amal (umbrella group) (MMA), and Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Political subdivisions: 4 provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province or NWFP)); also the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (composed of 7 tribal agencies--Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Kurram, Orakzai, North Waziristan, and South Waziristan) and the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region (Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas).

Economy
Real GDP growth rate (2009 est.): 2.7%.
Per capita GDP (year ending 2009, purchasing power parity): $2,600.
Natural resources: Arable land, natural gas, limited oil, substantial hydropower potential, coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton.
Industry: Types--textiles & apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, shrimp, fertilizer, and paper products.
Trade (2009 est.): Exports--$17.87 billion: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, carpets, rugs, chemicals and manufactures. Major partners (2008)--U.S. 16%, United Arab Emirates 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, U.K. 4.5%, China 4.2%. Imports--$28.31 billion: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, paper and paper board, transportation equipment, edible oils, pulses, iron and steel, tea. Major partners (2008)--China 14.1%, Saudi Arabia 12%, U.A.E. 11.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, India 4.8%, U.S. 4.7%, Malaysia 4.1%.

Pakistan Economy

Geography
Area: 803,943 sq. km. (310,527 sq. mi.); almost twice the size of California.
Cities: Capital--The city of Islamabad (pop. 800,000) and adjacent Rawalpindi (1,406, 214) comprise the national capital area with a combined population of 3.7 million. Other cities--Karachi (11,624,219) (2005 est.), Lahore (6,310,888) (2005 est.), Faisalabad (1,977,246) and Hyderabad (1,151,274).

People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Pakistan(i).
Population (July 2008 est.): 167,762,040.
Annual population growth rate (2008 est.): 1.81%.
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun, Baloch, Muhajir (i.e., Urdu-speaking immigrants from India and their descendants), Saraiki, and Hazara.
Religions: Muslim 97%; small minorities of Christians, Hindus, and others.
Languages: Urdu (national and official), English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Baloch, Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki (Punjabi variant).
Education: Literacy (2005 est.)--49.9%; male 63%; female 36%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2008 est.)--66.95/1,000. Life expectancy (2008 est.)--men 63.07 yrs., women 65.24 yrs.
Work force (2004 est.): Agriculture--42%; services--38%; industry--20%.

Government
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 14, 1947.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government). Legislative--bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora (100-seat Senate, 342-seat National Assembly). Judicial--Supreme Court, provincial high courts, Federal Islamic (or Shari'a) Court.
Political parties: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), Pakistan Muslim League (PML), Muttahid Majlis-e-Amal (umbrella group) (MMA), and Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Political subdivisions: 4 provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province or NWFP)); also the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (composed of 7 tribal agencies--Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Kurram, Orakzai, North Waziristan, and South Waziristan) and the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region (Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas).

Economy
Real GDP growth rate (2009 est.): 2.7%.
Per capita GDP (year ending 2009, purchasing power parity): $2,600.
Natural resources: Arable land, natural gas, limited oil, substantial hydropower potential, coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton.
Industry: Types--textiles & apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, shrimp, fertilizer, and paper products.
Trade (2009 est.): Exports--$17.87 billion: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, carpets, rugs, chemicals and manufactures. Major partners (2008)--U.S. 16%, United Arab Emirates 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, U.K. 4.5%, China 4.2%. Imports--$28.31 billion: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, paper and paper board, transportation equipment, edible oils, pulses, iron and steel, tea. Major partners (2008)--China 14.1%, Saudi Arabia 12%, U.A.E. 11.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, India 4.8%, U.S. 4.7%, Malaysia 4.1%.

Pakistan Defense Program

Geography
Area: 803,943 sq. km. (310,527 sq. mi.); almost twice the size of California.
Cities: Capital--The city of Islamabad (pop. 800,000) and adjacent Rawalpindi (1,406, 214) comprise the national capital area with a combined population of 3.7 million. Other cities--Karachi (11,624,219) (2005 est.), Lahore (6,310,888) (2005 est.), Faisalabad (1,977,246) and Hyderabad (1,151,274).

People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Pakistan(i).
Population (July 2008 est.): 167,762,040.
Annual population growth rate (2008 est.): 1.81%.
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun, Baloch, Muhajir (i.e., Urdu-speaking immigrants from India and their descendants), Saraiki, and Hazara.
Religions: Muslim 97%; small minorities of Christians, Hindus, and others.
Languages: Urdu (national and official), English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Baloch, Hindko, Brahui, Saraiki (Punjabi variant).
Education: Literacy (2005 est.)--49.9%; male 63%; female 36%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2008 est.)--66.95/1,000. Life expectancy (2008 est.)--men 63.07 yrs., women 65.24 yrs.
Work force (2004 est.): Agriculture--42%; services--38%; industry--20%.

Government
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 14, 1947.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government). Legislative--bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora (100-seat Senate, 342-seat National Assembly). Judicial--Supreme Court, provincial high courts, Federal Islamic (or Shari'a) Court.
Political parties: Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), Pakistan Muslim League (PML), Muttahid Majlis-e-Amal (umbrella group) (MMA), and Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Political subdivisions: 4 provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province or NWFP)); also the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (composed of 7 tribal agencies--Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Kurram, Orakzai, North Waziristan, and South Waziristan) and the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region (Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas).

Economy
Real GDP growth rate (2009 est.): 2.7%.
Per capita GDP (year ending 2009, purchasing power parity): $2,600.
Natural resources: Arable land, natural gas, limited oil, substantial hydropower potential, coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton.
Industry: Types--textiles & apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, shrimp, fertilizer, and paper products.
Trade (2009 est.): Exports--$17.87 billion: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, carpets, rugs, chemicals and manufactures. Major partners (2008)--U.S. 16%, United Arab Emirates 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, U.K. 4.5%, China 4.2%. Imports--$28.31 billion: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, paper and paper board, transportation equipment, edible oils, pulses, iron and steel, tea. Major partners (2008)--China 14.1%, Saudi Arabia 12%, U.A.E. 11.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, India 4.8%, U.S. 4.7%, Malaysia 4.1%.

Pakistan Foreign Relations

After September 11, 2001, Pakistan's prominence in the international community increased significantly, as it pledged its alliance with the U.S. in counterterrorism efforts and made a commitment to eliminate terrorist camps on its territory. Historically, Pakistan has had difficult and volatile relations with India, long-standing close relations with China, extensive security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf, and wide-ranging bilateral relations with the United States and other Western countries. It expresses a strong desire for a stable Afghanistan.

India
Since partition, relations between Pakistan and India have been characterized by rivalry and suspicion. Although many issues divide the two countries, the most sensitive one since independence has been the status of Kashmir.

At the time of partition, the princely state of Kashmir, though ruled by a Hindu king, had an overwhelmingly Muslim population. When the king hesitated in acceding to either Pakistan or India in 1947, some of his Muslim subjects revolted in favor of joining Pakistan. In exchange for military assistance in containing the revolt, the Kashmiri ruler offered his allegiance to India. Indian troops occupied the eastern portion of Kashmir, including its capital, Srinagar, while the western part came under Pakistani control.

India submitted this dispute to the United Nations on January 1, 1948. One year later, the UN arranged a cease-fire along a line dividing Kashmir but leaving the northern end of the line not demarcated and the Valley of Kashmir (with the majority of the population) under Indian control. India and Pakistan agreed to a UN-supervised plebiscite to determine the state's future. This plebiscite has not occurred because the main precondition, the withdrawal of both nations' forces from Kashmir, has failed to take place. Pakistan has since fought three wars with India over Kashmir, in 1948, 1965, and the Kargil conflict in 1999.

In July 1972, following the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, which resulted in the creation of an independent Bangladesh, President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi met in the hill station of Shimla, India, and agreed to a line of control in Kashmir. Both leaders endorsed the principle of settlement of bilateral disputes through peaceful means. In 1974, Pakistan and India agreed to resume postal and telecommunications linkages and to enact measures to facilitate travel. Trade and diplomatic relations were restored in 1976 after a hiatus of 5 years.

India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program. In 1983, the Pakistani and Indian Governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries--Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan's Sindh province. In April 1984, tensions erupted after troops were deployed to the Siachen Glacier, a high-altitude, desolate area close to the Chinese border not demarcated by the cease-fire agreement (Karachi Agreement) signed by Pakistan and India in 1949.

Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers was brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985. In December 1985, President Zia and Prime Minister Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. A formal "no attack" agreement was signed in January 1991. In early 1986, the Indian and Pakistani Governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade.

Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri militants began a campaign of violence against Indian Government authority in Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between India and Pakistan, but relations worsened again after the destruction of the Ayodhya mosque by Hindu extremists in December 1992 and terrorist bombings in Bombay in March 1993. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 ended in deadlock.

The relationship improved markedly when Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee traveled to Lahore for a summit with Nawaz Sharif in February 1999. There was considerable hope that the meeting could lead to a breakthrough. However, any breakthrough that was made was negated when in spring 1999, infiltrators from Pakistan occupied positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control in the remote, mountainous area of Kashmir near Kargil. By early summer, serious fighting flared in the Kargil sector of Kashmir. The infiltrators withdrew following a meeting between Prime Minister Sharif and President Bill Clinton in July. Subsequently, relations between India and Pakistan became particularly strained during the 1999 coup in Islamabad. Then, on December 13, 2001 just weeks after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, an attack on India's Parliament further strained this relationship.

The prospects for better relations between India and Pakistan improved in early January 2004 when a summit meeting of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) permitted India's Prime Minister Vajpayee to meet with President Musharraf. Both leaders agreed to reestablish the Composite Dialogue to resolve their bilateral disputes. The Composite Dialogue focuses on eight issues: confidence building measures, Kashmir, Wullar barrage, promotion of friendly exchanges, Siachen glacier, Sir creek, terrorism and drug trafficking, and economic and commercial cooperation. The first round in this renewed Composite Dialogue was held in New Delhi on June 27-28, 2004.

Relations further improved when President Musharraf met Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in New York in October 2004. Additional steps aimed at improving relations were announced when Indian Foreign Minister Natwar Singh visited Islamabad in February 2005 and in April 2005 when President Musharraf traveled to India to view a cricket match and hold discussions. In a further display of improved relations, bus service commenced from Pakistan-controlled Kashmir to Srinagar in April 2005. After a destructive earthquake hit the Kashmir region in October 2005, the two countries cooperated with each other to deal with the humanitarian crisis.

However, the July 2008 bombing of the Indian Embassy in Kabul, followed in November 2008 by terrorist attacks in Mumbai, brought the bilateral Composite Dialogue to a halt. Pakistan agreed to foreign secretary-level talks in New Delhi, which occurred February 25, 2010. On April 29, 2010, Singh and Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani met on the sidelines of the 16th South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Summit and signaled they would work toward resuming dialogue. Following the meeting, Pakistani officials assured India that Pakistan would not allow its territory to be used for terrorist activity directed against India. Pakistan also said it would expedite the trial of suspects implicated in the Mumbai attacks.

Afghanistan
Following the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the Pakistani Government played a vital role in supporting the Afghan resistance movement and assisting Afghan refugees. After the Soviet withdrawal in February 1989, Pakistan, with cooperation from the world community, continued to provide extensive support for displaced Afghans. Continued turmoil in Afghanistan prevented the refugees from returning to their country. In 1999, more than 1.2 million registered Afghan refugees remained in Pakistan. Pakistan was one of three countries to recognize the Taliban regime of Afghanistan. International pressure after September 11, 2001, prompted Pakistan to reassess its relations with the Taliban regime and support the U.S. and international coalition in Operation Enduring Freedom to remove the Taliban from power. Pakistan has publicly expressed its support to Afghanistan's President Karzai and has pledged $100 million toward Afghanistan's reconstruction. Both nations are also working to strengthen cooperation and coordination along their shared rugged border.

People's Republic of China
In 1950, Pakistan was among the first countries to recognize the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.). Following the Sino-Indian hostilities of 1962, Pakistan's relations with China became stronger; since then, the countries have regularly exchanged high-level visits resulting in various agreements. China has provided economic, military, and technical assistance to Pakistan. Favorable relations with China have been a pillar of Pakistan's foreign policy. The P.R.C. strongly supported Pakistan's opposition to Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and is perceived by Pakistan as a regional counterweight to India and Russia.

Iran and the Persian Gulf
Historically, Pakistan has had close geopolitical and cultural-religious linkages with Iran. However, strains in the relationship appeared following the Iranian revolution. Pakistan and Iran supported different factions in the Afghan conflict. Also, some Pakistanis suspect Iranian Government support for the sectarian violence that has plagued Pakistan. However, relations between the countries have improved since their policies toward Afghanistan have converged with the fall of the Taliban. Both countries contend that they are on the road to strong and lasting friendly relations.

Pakistan has also provided military personnel to strengthen Gulf-state defenses and to reinforce its own security interests in the area.

Pakistan Additionalal Political Information

The United States and Pakistan established diplomatic relations in 1947. The U.S. agreement to provide economic and military assistance to Pakistan and the latter's partnership in the Baghdad Pact/CENTO and SEATO strengthened relations between the nations. However, the U.S. suspension of military assistance during the 1965 Indo-Pakistan war generated a widespread feeling in Pakistan that the United States was not a reliable ally. Even though the United States suspended military assistance to both countries involved in the conflict, the suspension of aid affected Pakistan much more severely. Gradually, relations improved, and arms sales were renewed in 1975. Then, in April 1979, the United States cut off economic assistance to Pakistan, except food assistance, as required under the Symington Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, due to concerns about Pakistan's nuclear program.

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 highlighted the common interest of Pakistan and the United States in peace and stability in South Asia. In 1981, the United States and Pakistan agreed on a $3.2 billion military and economic assistance program aimed at helping Pakistan deal with the heightened threat to security in the region and its economic development needs.

Recognizing national security concerns and accepting Pakistan's assurances that it did not intend to construct a nuclear weapon, Congress waived restrictions (Symington Amendment) on military assistance to Pakistan. In March 1986, the two countries agreed on a second multi-year (FY 1988-93) $4 billion economic development and security assistance program. On October 1, 1990, however, the United States suspended all military assistance and new economic aid to Pakistan under the Pressler Amendment, which required that the President certify annually that Pakistan "does not possess a nuclear explosive device."

Several incidents of violence against American officials and U.S. mission employees in Pakistan have marred the relationship. In November 1979, false rumors that the United States had participated in the seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca provoked a mob attack on the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad in which the chancery was set on fire resulting in the loss of life of American and Pakistani staff. In 1989, an attack on the American Center in Islamabad resulted in six Pakistanis being killed in crossfire with the police. In March 1995, two American employees of the consulate in Karachi were killed and one wounded in an attack on the home-to-office shuttle. In November 1997, four U.S. businessmen were brutally murdered while being driven to work in Karachi. In March 2002 a suicide attacker detonated explosives in a church in Islamabad, killing two Americans associated with the Embassy and three others. There were also unsuccessful attacks by terrorists on the Consulate General in Karachi in May 2002. Another bomb was detonated near American and other businesses in Karachi in November 2005, killing three people and wounding 15 others. On March 2, 2006, a suicide bomber detonated a car packed with explosives as a vehicle carrying an American Foreign Service officer passed by on its way to Consulate Karachi. The diplomat, the Consulate's locally-employed driver and three other people were killed in the blast; 52 others were wounded. In September 2008, a truck bomb at Islamabad's Marriott Hotel killed three Embassy staff. On April 5, 2010, heavily armed terrorists in two vehicles hurled bombs and fired at security men near Consulate Peshawar, killing four Pakistanis.

The decision by India to conduct nuclear tests in May 1998 and Pakistan's matching response set back U.S. relations in the region, which had seen renewed U.S. Government interest during the second Clinton Administration. A presidential visit scheduled for the first quarter of 1998 was postponed and, under the Glenn Amendment, sanctions restricted the provision of credits, military sales, economic assistance, and loans to the government. The October 1999 overthrow of the democratically elected Sharif government triggered an additional layer of sanctions under Section 508 of the Foreign Appropriations Act, which include restrictions on foreign military financing and economic assistance. U.S. Government assistance to Pakistan was subsequently limited mainly to refugee and counter-narcotics assistance.

The U.S.-Pakistan relationship changed significantly once Pakistan agreed to support the U.S. campaign to eliminate the Taliban in Afghanistan and to join the United States in efforts against terrorism. Since September 2001, Pakistan has provided extensive assistance in counterterrorism efforts by capturing more than 600 al-Qaida members and their allies. The United States has stepped up its economic assistance to Pakistan, providing debt relief and support for a major effort for education reform. During President Musharraf's visit to the United States in 2003, President Bush announced that the United States would provide Pakistan with $3 billion in economic and military aid over 5 years. This assistance package commenced during FY 2005.

Following the region's tragic October 8, 2005 earthquake, the United States responded immediately and generously to Pakistan's call for assistance. The response was consistent with U.S. humanitarian values and our deep commitment to Pakistan. At the subsequent reconstruction conference in Islamabad on November 19, 2005, the U.S. announced a $510 million commitment to Pakistan for earthquake relief and reconstruction, including humanitarian assistance, military support for relief operations, and anticipated U.S. private contributions.

In 2004, the United States recognized closer bilateral ties with Pakistan by designating Pakistan as a Major Non-NATO Ally. President Bush visited Pakistan in March 2006, where he and President Musharraf reaffirmed their shared commitment to a broad and lasting strategic partnership, agreeing to continue their cooperation on a number of issues including: counterterrorism efforts, security in the region, strengthening democratic institutions, trade and investment, education, and earthquake relief and reconstruction. The United States concluded the sale to Pakistan of F-16 aircrafts in late 2006, further reflecting the deepening strategic partnership.

The Barack Obama administration has reaffirmed a U.S. strategic partnership with Pakistan. In particular, the U.S. Congress passed the Kerry-Lugar-Berman (KLB) legislation to authorize $1.5 billion in non-military assistance to Pakistan annually for 5 years, which President Obama signed into law on October 15, 2009.

Along with the passage of KLB, in late October 2009, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Pakistan, setting the stage for a renewed engagement with the Pakistani Government and people. During the Secretary's visit, she and Foreign Minister Mahmood Shah Qureshi agreed to a Strategic Dialogue to be held at the ministerial level for the first time. Following through on this commitment, the Secretary and Foreign Minister Qureshi co-hosted the U.S.-Pakistan Strategic Dialogue on March 24-25, 2010 in Washington, DC.

At the Dialogue, the Pakistani delegations and their U.S. counterparts engaged in sessions on agriculture, defense and security, economic development and finance, social issues, energy and water, and communications. The participants constructed deliverable goals on the issues that are crucial to both countries. In particular, these objectives included agriculture infrastructure assistance through a $30 million allocation; a pledge for the United States to work with Pakistan to make progress in the timely implementation of tax system and energy financing reforms; continued and expanded collaboration on improving quality of and access to education; cooperation on a range of technological advances to include information technologies and telecommunications such as eLearning, eGovernance, telemedicine, and mobile banking; and mapping out progress on natural gas development and agendas for future discussions on water. A letter of intent was also signed to upgrade major road infrastructure in northwest Pakistan, as well as implementation agreements for three thermal power station rehabilitation projects that will aid in combating electricity shortages in the country.

Principal U.S. Embassy Officials
Ambassador--Cameron Munter
Deputy Chief of Mission--Gerald M. Feierstein
Counselor for Political Affairs--Theodore Craig
Counselor for Economic Affairs--Christian DeAngelis
Counselor for Public Affairs--Larry Schwartz
Consul General--Christopher Richard
Defense Attaché--Rear Admiral Michael LeFevre
Consul General, Lahore--Carmela Conroy
Consul General, Peshawar--Elizabeth Rood
Consul General, Karachi--William Martin

The U.S. Embassy is located at the Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad [tel. (92)-(51)-208-2000].




List of States / Privinces / Districts in Pakistan


1. Islamabad Capital Territory
2. Sindh
3. Punjab
4. North West Frontier Province
5. Gilgit-Baltistan
6. Federally Administered Tribal Areas
7. Balochistan
8. Azad Kashmir



Pakistan's Largest Cities

(Pakistan's Most Populated Cities)


Top 100 Pakistan cities shown of 398 total Pakistan cities that are over 1,000 in population...

1. Karachi 11,624,219
2. Lahore 6,310,888
3. Faisalabad 2,506,595
4. Rawalpindi 1,743,101
5. Multan 1,437,230
6. Hyderabad 1,386,330
7. Gujranwala 1,384,471
8. Peshawar 1,218,773
9. Quetta 733,675
10. Kotli 640,000
11. Islamabad 601,600
12. Bahawalpur 552,607
13. Sargodha 542,603
14. Sialkot 477,396
15. Sukkur 417,767
16. Larkana 364,033
17. Sheikhupura 361,303
18. Bhimbar 342,900
19. Jhang Sadr 341,210
20. Gujrat 301,506
21. Mardan 300,424
22. Kasur 290,643
23. Dera Ghazi Khan 236,093
24. Montgomery 235,695
25. Nawabshah 229,504
26. Mingaora 227,331
27. Okara 223,648
28. Mirpur Khas 215,657
29. Chiniot 201,781
30. Kamoke 199,531
31. Sadiqabad 189,876
32. Burewala 183,915
33. Jacobabad 170,588
34. Muzaffargarh 165,192
35. Muridke 164,246
36. Jhelum 164,080
37. Shikarpur 156,901
38. Hafizabad 153,656
39. Kohat 151,427
40. Khanpur 142,426
41. Dadu 139,784
42. Gojra 139,726
43. Mandi Bahauddin 129,733
44. Tando Allahyar 127,202
45. Daska 126,924
46. Pakpattan 126,706
47. Bahawalnagar 126,700
48. Bahawalnagar 126,617
49. Tando Adam 125,598
50. Khairpur 124,602
51. Chishtian Mandi 122,199
52. Abbottabad 120,000
53. Jaranwala 119,785
54. Ahmadpur East 116,579
55. Vihari 112,840
56. Kamalia 112,426
57. Kot Addu 104,217
58. Khushab 102,793
59. Wazirabad 102,444
60. Dera Ismail Khan 101,616
61. Chakwal 101,200
62. Swabi 97,363
63. Lodhran 97,249
64. Nowshera Cantonment 96,766
65. Charsadda 95,319
66. Jalalpur 93,883
67. Mianwali 89,570
68. Chaman 88,568
69. Kandhkot 88,468
70. Hasilpur 88,031
71. Arifwala 87,360
72. Bhai Pheru 86,900
73. Attock City 85,479
74. Chichawatni 82,762
75. Bhakkar 81,950
76. Kharian 81,435
77. Leiah 78,954
78. Kambar 77,481
79. Moro 76,765
80. Mian Channun 76,226
81. Turbat 75,694
82. Shahdadkot 75,411
83. Bhalwal 74,744
84. Dipalpur 74,640
85. Badin 73,569
86. Pano Aqil 72,881
87. Kotri 72,672
88. Tando Muhammad Khan 72,659
89. Haru Zbad 72,432
90. Pattoki 70,436
91. Kohror Pakka 69,743
92. Gujar Khan 69,374
93. Kot Malik 69,359
94. Chuhar Kana 69,321
95. Toba Tek Singh 69,064
96. Narowal 68,291
97. Shorko 67,439
98. Shahdadpur 67,249
99. Shabqadar 66,541
100. Mansehra 66,486

View All Pakistan Cities...




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