Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a medium Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 40%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 28 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.
Area: 1.28 million sq. km. (496,225 sq. mi.). Peru is the third-largest country in South America and is approximately three times the size of California.
Major cities: Lima (capital), Arequipa, Chiclayo, Cuzco, Huancayo, Ica, Trujillo, Ayacucho, Piura, Iquitos, and Chimbote.
Terrain: Western arid coastal plains, central rugged Andean mountains, and eastern lowlands with tropical forests that are part of the Amazon basin.
Climate: Arid and mild in coastal area, temperate to frigid in the Andes, and warm and humid in the jungle lowlands.
Ethnic groups: Indigenous (45%); mixed background ("mestizo") (37%); European (15%); African, Japanese, Chinese, and other (3%).
Population (2011): 29.8 million. Close to 30% of the population lives in the Lima/Callao metropolitan area.
Annual population growth rate (2011): 1.14%.
Religions: Roman Catholic (81%), other (10%).
Languages: Spanish is the principal language. Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages also have official status.
Education: Years compulsory--11. Attendance--ages 6-11, 92%; ages 12-16, 66%. Literacy--96% in urban areas, 80% in rural areas.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2006)--29.96 per 1,000. Life expectancy (2007)--68.33 years male; 72.04 years female.
Unemployment in Lima (2010): 7.9%; underemployment (2010): 42.5%.
Type: Constitutional republic.
Independence: July 28, 1821.
Constitution: December 31, 1993.
Branches: Executive--president, two vice presidents, and a Council of Ministers led by a president of the Council of Ministers (prime minister). Legislative--unicameral Congress. Judicial--four-tier court structure consisting of Supreme Court and lower courts.
Administrative divisions: 25 regions (sometimes called departments) subdivided into 195 provinces and 1,834 districts.
Political parties: Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA), Popular Christian Party PPC), Peruvian Nationalist Party (PNP), Peru Posible (PP), Popular Action (AP), National Solidarity (SN), Union for Peru (UPP), Somos Peru (SP), National Restoration (RN), and Force 2011.
Suffrage: Universal and mandatory for citizens 18 to 70.
GDP (2010): $153.92 billion.
Annual growth rate: 0.9% (2009); 8.8% (2010).
Per capita GDP (2010): $5,224.
Natural resources: Copper, gold, silver, zinc, lead, iron ore, fish, petroleum, natural gas, and forestry.
Manufacturing (2010): 15.0% of GDP. Types--food and beverages, textiles and apparel, nonferrous and precious metals, nonmetallic minerals, petroleum refining, paper, chemicals, iron and steel, fishmeal, footwear, chemicals, paper, machinery, furniture.
Agriculture (2010): 7.5% of GDP. Products--coffee, cotton, asparagus, paprika, artichokes, sugarcane, potatoes, rice, banana, maize, poultry, milk, fruits, others.
Other sectors, by percentage of GDP (2010): Services (55.6%), mining (5.2%), construction (6.7%), fisheries (0.3%).
Trade (2010 Government of Peru customs statistics): Exports--$35.07 billion: gold, copper, fishmeal, petroleum, zinc, textiles, apparel, asparagus, coffee, others. Major markets--U.S. (16.3%), China (15.5%), Switzerland (11.0%), Canada (9.5%), Japan (5.1%), Germany (4.3%), Chile (3.9%), Spain (3.3%). Imports--$ 27.91 billion: petroleum and petroleum products, vehicles, plastics, steel, telephones, wheat, soy oil and soy products, corn, chemicals, commercial machinery, processed food, electronic goods. Major suppliers--U.S. (19.5%), China (16.8%), Brazil (7.4%), Ecuador (5.0%), Japan (4.5%), Colombia (4.6%), Mexico (3.8%).
Peru is the fifth-most populous country in Latin America (after Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and Argentina). Twenty-one cities have a population of 100,000 or more. Rural migration increased the urban population from 35.4% of the total population in 1940 to an estimated 74.6% as of 2005.
Most Peruvians are either Spanish-speaking mestizos--a term that usually refers to a mixture of indigenous and European/Caucasian--or Amerindians, largely Quechua-speaking indigenous people. Peruvians of European descent make up about 15% of the population. There also are small numbers of persons of African, Japanese, and Chinese ancestry. Socioeconomic and cultural indicators are increasingly important as identifiers. For example, Peruvians of Amerindian descent who have adopted aspects of Hispanic culture also are considered mestizo. With economic development, access to education, intermarriage, and large-scale migration from rural to urban areas, a more homogeneous national culture is developing, mainly along the relatively more prosperous coast. Peru's distinct geographical regions are mirrored in a socioeconomic divide between the coast's mestizo-Hispanic culture and the more diverse, traditional Andean cultures of the mountains and highlands and Amazon indigenous communities east of the Andes.
The Inca Empire and Spanish Conquest
When the Spanish landed in 1531, Peru's territory was the nucleus of the highly developed Inca civilization. Centered at Cuzco, the Incan Empire extended over a vast region from northern Ecuador to central Chile. In search of Inca wealth, the Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro, who arrived in the territory after the Incas had fought a debilitating civil war, conquered the weakened people. The Spanish captured the Incan capital at Cuzco by 1533, and consolidated their control by 1542. Gold and silver from the Andes enriched the conquerors, and Peru became the principal source of Spanish wealth and power in South America.
Pizarro founded Lima in 1535. The viceroyalty established at Lima in 1542 initially had jurisdiction over all of the Spanish colonies in South America. By the time of the wars of independence (1820-24), Lima had become one of the most distinguished and aristocratic colonial capitals and the chief Spanish stronghold in the Americas (along with Mexico City).
Jose de San Martin of Argentina and Simon Bolivar of Venezuela led Peru's independence struggle. San Martin proclaimed Peruvian independence from Spain on July 28, 1821. Emancipation was completed in December 1824, when Venezuelan Marshall Antonio Jose de Sucre defeated a Spanish army at Ayacucho, ending Spain's rule in South America. Spain subsequently made futile attempts to regain its former colonies, but in 1879 it finally recognized Peru's independence.
After independence, Peru and its neighbors engaged in intermittent territorial disputes. Chile's victory over Peru and Bolivia in the War of the Pacific (1879-83) resulted in a territorial settlement in which Peru ceded the department of Tarapaca and the provinces of Tacna and Arica to Chile. In 1929, Chile returned Tacna to Peru. Following a clash between Peru and Ecuador in 1941, the Rio Protocol--of which the United States is one of four guarantors (along with Argentina, Brazil, and Chile)--sought to establish the boundary between the two countries. Continuing boundary disagreements led to brief armed conflicts in early 1981 and early 1995, but in 1998 the governments of Peru and Ecuador signed an historic peace treaty and demarcated the border. In late 1999, the governments of Peru and Chile likewise implemented the last outstanding article of their 1929 border agreement. Peru and Chile still dispute the maritime boundary.
Military Rule and Return to Democracy (1968-1980)
The military has been prominent in Peruvian history. Coups have repeatedly interrupted civilian constitutional government. The most recent period of military rule (1968-80) began when General Juan Velasco Alvarado overthrew elected President Fernando Belaunde Terry of the Popular Action Party (AP). As part of what has been called the "first phase" of the military government's nationalist program, Velasco undertook an extensive agrarian reform program and nationalized the fishmeal industry, some petroleum and mining companies, and several banks.
Because of Velasco's economic mismanagement and deteriorating health, he was replaced in 1975 by General Francisco Morales Bermudez. Morales Bermudez tempered the authoritarian abuses of the Velasco administration and began the task of restoring the country's economy. Morales Bermudez presided over the return to civilian government under a new constitution, and in the May 1980 elections President Belaunde Terry was returned to office by an impressive plurality.
Instability in the 1980s
Nagging economic problems left over from the military government persisted, worsened by an occurrence of the "El Nino" weather phenomenon in 1982-83, which caused widespread flooding in some parts of the country, severe droughts in others, and decimated the fishing industry. The fall in international commodity prices to their lowest levels since the Great Depression combined with the natural disasters to decrease production, depress wages, exacerbate unemployment, and spur inflation. Bloated state-owned companies compounded the deteriorating fiscal situation. The ensuing economic collapse was reflected in worsening living conditions for Peru's poor and provided a breeding ground for social and political discontent. The emergence of two terrorist groups--Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) in rural areas in 1980, followed shortly thereafter by the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) in Lima and the Amazonas--sent the country further into chaos. The terrorists were financed in part from alliances with narcotraffickers, who had established strongholds in the Peruvian Andes and Amazon basin during this period. Peru and Bolivia became the largest coca producers in the world, accounting for roughly four-fifths of production.
Amid inflation, economic hardship, and terrorism, Alan Garcia Perez of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) won the presidential election in 1985. The transfer of the presidency from Belaunde to Garcia on July 28, 1985, was Peru's first transfer of power from one democratically elected leader to another in 40 years. The Garcia administration's economic mismanagement led to hyperinflation from 1988 to 1990. Concerned about the economy, the increasing terrorist threat from Sendero Luminoso, and allegations of official corruption, in 1990 voters chose as President a relatively unknown mathematician-turned-politician, Alberto Fujimori.
The Fujimori Decade (1990-2000)
Although he ran on a populist platform, promising not to implement the macroeconomic shock package proposed by his opponent, novelist Mario Vargas Llosa, the severe economic situation forced Fujimori to carry out radical changes. He immediately implemented drastic economic policies to tackle inflation (which dropped from 7,650% in 1990 to 139% in 1991), but encountered opposition to further economic reforms, including dealing with the growing insurgency. On April 5, 1992, Fujimori dissolved the Congress in an "auto-coup," set aside the 1979 constitution, and carried out a mass firing of judges and "reorganization" of the courts. Later, pressured by the international community, Fujimori called new congressional elections. With a large majority in Congress, Fujimori proceeded to govern unimpeded, and in 1993 pushed through a new constitution with a strong executive function. Fujimori's security advisor, Vladimiro Montesinos, used bribes and intimidation to co-opt large segments of the judiciary, military, and media. The government unleashed a counterattack against the insurgencies that resulted in numerous human rights abuses on both sides and eventually quashed the Shining Path and MRTA. During this period Fujimori introduced far-reaching legal and economic reforms, privatized most state-owned companies, removed investment barriers, and significantly improved public finances. After a short but intense border war, Fujimori reached a milestone peace accord in 1998 with Ecuadorian President Jamil Mahuad related to the common border, ending decades of hostility between the two countries.
Fujimori mired Peru in political and economic turmoil with his questionable decision to seek a third term and his subsequent tainted electoral victory in June 2000. The Organization of American States (OAS), as well as the U.S. and many other states, refused to recognize the election results. A political bribery scandal broke just weeks after Fujimori began his third term in July, forcing him to call new elections in which he would not run. Fujimori fled to Japan and resigned from office in November 2000. A caretaker government under Valentin Paniagua presided over new presidential and congressional elections in April 2001. In the presidential contest, Alejandro Toledo defeated Alan Garcia in a runoff and took office on July 28, 2001.
The Toledo Administration (2001-2006)
The Toledo government consolidated Peru's return to democracy, a process that had begun under President Paniagua. Despite being a frequent target of political and media criticism, Toledo maintained strong commitments to freedom of the press. The government undertook initiatives to implement the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), which had studied the circumstances surrounding the human rights abuses and violations committed between 1980 and 2000. Prosecutors brought criminal charges against former president Fujimori for corruption and human rights violations. Authorities in Chile detained Fujimori in November 2005 and extradited him to face criminal charges in Peru in September 2007. In December 2007, a Peruvian court convicted Fujimori of ordering an illegal search and seizure of documents and sentenced him to 6 years in prison. In April 2009, a court convicted Fujimori of human rights violations and sentenced him to 25 years in prison. Another court convicted the former president in July and September 2009 on embezzlement and corruption charges, respectively, and sentenced him to 7.5 years, and ordered him to pay $10 million in civil reparations.
Under President Toledo, Peru negotiated a trade promotion agreement (the PTPA) with the U.S. Toledo also unveiled plans to construct a road connecting Brazil and Peru's isolated interior to the Pacific coast. Toledo's economic management--a continuation of Fujimori's--led to an impressive economic boom in Peru. Poverty reduction was uneven, however. Although poverty in some areas decreased to 15.8% during the Toledo administration, nationally it only decreased by 9.8% and nearly half (44.5%) of Peruvians were still living below the poverty line. In 2005 the government implemented "Juntos," a program to double the income of people living in extreme poverty (17.4% that year).
The Garcia Administration
APRA candidate Alan Garcia Perez won the June 2006 runoff presidential election with 52.5% of the vote, defeating Ollanta Humala, who won the first round under the Union for Peru party banner, with the support of his Peruvian Nationalist Party. APRA also won 36 congressional seats and controlled the largest voting bloc. After his disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, Garcia returned to the presidency with the intention of turning around the perception of him that his first term had generated. During his second term, Garcia oversaw a robust macroeconomic performance, including strong GDP growth and declining poverty levels (39.3% of Peruvians were "poor" in 2007, 36.2% in 2008, and 34.8% in 2009). Garcia faced the most acute crisis of his second term in June 2009, when indigenous protesters and police clashed violently nearly the remote Amazon town of Bagua. The conflict left 10 protesters and 24 police officers dead, and caused a dramatic drop on Garcia's approval rating. Internationally, Garcia sought to reenergize Peru's international relations and economic relations with the world and to showcase Peru's democratic and pro-free trade path as a model for the region. He successfully hosted two international summits in 2008, the European Union-Latin America and Caribbean summit and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) leaders' summit, and the Organization of American States General Assembly in 2010. The U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA) went into effect in February 2009.
The 2011 Presidential Election of Ollanta Humala
Ollanta Humala Tasso, runner-up to Garcia in 2006, won the most votes in the first round of the 2011 presidential election. In the June 5, 2011 runoff, Humala defeated opponent Keiko Fujimori, daughter of imprisoned former president Alberto Fujimori, by a 51.3% to 48.7% margin. Since taking office July 28, President Humala has made social inclusion his administration's central theme. On October 24 the Peruvian Congress formally created a new Ministry of Development and Social Inclusion, with operations beginning on January 1, 2012. President Humala named economist Carolina Trivelli Avila to be the first head of the new ministry. On December 10, 2011 President Humala undertook a major cabinet reshuffle, replacing the Prime Minister and 10 other ministers.
Constitution and Political Institutions
The president is popularly elected for a 5-year term. A constitutional amendment passed in 2000 prevents immediate reelection, but allows unlimited nonconsecutive terms. The first and second vice presidents also are popularly elected but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties. The principal executive body is the Council of Ministers, headed by a prime minister and comprised of 18 members following the creation in October 2011 of the Ministry of Development and Social Inclusion. The president appoints its members, who must be ratified by the Congress. All executive laws sent to Congress must be approved by the Council of Ministers.
The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress of 130 members. In addition to passing laws, Congress ratifies treaties, authorizes government loans, and approves the government budget.
The judicial branch of government is headed by a 16-member Supreme Court. The Constitutional Tribunal interprets the constitution on matters of individual rights. Superior courts in regional capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts. Courts of first instance are located in provincial capitals and are divided into civil, penal, and special chambers. The judiciary has created several temporary specialized courts in an attempt to reduce the large backlog of cases pending final court action. In 1996 a human rights ombudsman's office was created.
Peru is divided into 25 regions that are still sometimes referred to as "departments." The regions are subdivided into provinces, which are composed of districts. High authorities at the regional and local levels are elected. The country's decentralization program is designed to return some of the mining and hydrocarbons royalties (canon) to the regions so that infrastructure projects can take place.
Principal Government Officials
President--Ollanta HUMALA Tasso
First Vice President--Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz
Second Vice President--Omar CHEHADE Moya
Prime Minister--Oscar VALDES Dancuart
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Rafael RONCAGLIOLO Orbegoso
Minister of Defense--Luis Alberto OTAROLA Penaranda
Minister of Economy and Finance--Luis Miguel CASTILLA Rubio
Minister of Interior--Daniel Ezequiel LOZADA Casapia
Minister of Justice--Juan Federico JIMENEZ Mayor
Minister of Health--Alberto TEJADA Noriega
Minister of Agriculture--Luis GUINOCCHIO Balcazar
Minister of Labor--Jose VILLENA Petrosino
Minister of Trade and Tourism--Jose Luis SILVA Martinot
Minister of Energy and Mines--Jose Humberto MERINO Tafur
Minister of Transportation and Communications--Carlos PAREDES Rodriguez
Minister of Production--Jose Antonio URQUIZO Maggia
Minister of Housing--Rene CORNEJO Diaz
Minister of Women--Ana Rosario JARA Velasquez
Minister of Environment--Manuel PULGAR-VIDAL Otalora
Minister of Culture--Luis Alberto PEIRANO Falconi
Minister of Development and Social Inclusion--Carolina TRIVELLI Avila
Peru maintains an embassy in the United States at 1700 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (tel. (202) 833-9860/67, consular section: (202) 462-1084). Peru has consulates in Atlanta, New York, Paterson (NJ), Miami, Chicago, Houston, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Boston, and Hartford.
Peru's economic growth was strong over the 7 years up to 2010, averaging 7.0% a year (including 2009, the year the economy grew only 0.9% as a consequence of the global financial crisis). This growth resulted largely from market-oriented economic reforms (which included measures to promote trade and attract investment) and privatizations in the 1990s, aided by high international prices for Peru's largest commodity exports. Real GDP grew 8.9% in 2007, 9.8% in 2008, 0.9% in 2009, and 8.8% in 2010. Economic expansion in recent years has been driven by construction, private investment (mainly in mining and oil and gas projects), and domestic consumption. Peru's economy is well managed, and better tax collection has been increasing revenues, with expenditures keeping pace. Private investment is rising and becoming more broad-based. Peru obtained investment grade status in 2008. In view of his appointment of a respected economic team and actions taken during his first 100 days in office, many anticipate that President Ollanta Humala will continue the sound economic policies of several prior administrations. While seeking to continue the well-functioning economic engine inherited from its predecessors, the Humala administration is pursuing a social inclusion agenda with the goal of ensuring that the lower classes increasingly benefit from Peru's economic success.
Peru weathered the 2008 global financial crisis well and was one of the few Latin American countries that had a positive growth rate in 2009. Annual average inflation receded to 2.9% in 2009 and 1.5% in 2010 after jumping to 5.8% in 2008 due mostly to substantial global food and oil price increases. Three consecutive years of fiscal surplus turned into deficits of 1.6% of GDP in 2009 and 0.5% in 2010, but a 1% surplus was projected for 2011. Thanks to pre-payments and lower borrowing, public external debt in 2010 dropped to $19.9 billion or 12.9% of GDP (compared to 70.9% at the end of 1988). Foreign reserves were a historic $44.1 billion at the end of 2010 and $48 billion at the end of September 2011.
Peru and the U.S. signed the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement in April 2006 in Washington, DC. The PTPA was ratified by the Peruvian Congress in June 2006 and by the U.S. Congress in December 2007. The Peruvian Government passed several changes to its environmental and intellectual property laws in order to allow the PTPA to enter into force on February 1, 2009.
Peru's exports of goods reached $35.1 billion in 2010, partly as a result of recovering mineral prices. Peru's major trading partners are the U.S., China, EU, Switzerland, Canada, and Japan. According to U.S. Government statistics, after 9 years of deficits, the United States registered 3 years in a row of trade surpluses with Peru during 2008-2010, with Peru exporting $5.1 billion and importing $6.8 billion in 2010. Peru's exports include gold, copper, crude oil and petroleum products, coffee, asparagus, apparel, molybdenum concentrates, and others. Imports include machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, petroleum products, electrical machinery, plastics, vehicles, steel, and cereals. Peru belongs to the Andean Community, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Peru has trade agreements with Chile, Mexico, Canada, Singapore, China, the European Union, South Korea, and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), and is negotiating with Japan. Peru is also a participant in efforts begun in early 2010 to negotiate a regional trade agreement under the Trans-Pacific Partnership, which also includes the United States.
The Peruvian Government actively seeks to attract both foreign and domestic investment in all sectors of the economy. Peru's Central Bank estimates that the stock of foreign direct investment (FDI) amounted to $41.8 billion at the end of 2010, while the U.S. Department of Commerce reported that U.S. investment in Peru on a historical-cost basis reached $7.9 billion in 2010, making the United States Peru's largest foreign investor. Spain and Chile are also leading investors. FDI is concentrated in oil and gas, telecommunications, mining, manufacturing, finance, and electricity.
Mining and Energy
Peru is a source of both natural gas and petroleum. In August 2004, Peru inaugurated operations of the Camisea natural gas project. Camisea gas has transformed Peru's energy matrix, reducing the country's dependence on imported diesel and power rationing in drought times. The $3.8 billion Peru LNG project, commissioned in June 2010, has become the largest investment in a single project ever made in Peru. The plant liquefies natural gas for export to Mexico and other countries, converting Peru into a net energy exporter in 2010.
For several years, Peru has maintained its position as the world's top producer of silver, second in zinc, third in copper and tin, fourth in lead, and sixth in gold. Mineral exports have consistently accounted for the most significant portion of Peru's export revenue, comprising 60% in 2010. Mining projects worth $50 billion are either in construction or undergoing the permitting phase, though many have been subject to delays due to local community opposition.
Peru Foreign Relations
Peru generally enjoys generally friendly relations with its neighbors, despite occasional bilateral tension with Chile. In November 1999, Peru and Chile signed three agreements that put to rest the remaining obstacles holding up implementation of the 1929 Border Treaty, which officially ended the 1879 War of the Pacific. In late 2005, a declaration of maritime borders by Peru's Congress set off a new round of tensions with Chile, which claims that the maritime borders were agreed to in fishing pacts dating from the early 1950s. The Garcia administration submitted arbitration of this dispute to the International Court of Justice at The Hague in hopes of finding an acceptable, apolitical solution, but the dispute remains in the headlines and continues to cause occasional friction. In 2009, a series of incidents renewed tensions between the two countries. These included Chile's "Salitre 2009" multinational military exercises and Chile's alleged quiet negotiations with Bolivia regarding that country's access to the sea. Relations with Chile became further complicated in November 2009, when a Peruvian Air Force non-commissioned officer was arrested for allegedly spying and passing classified defense information to Chile.
In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed a peace accord to resolve once and for all border differences that had sparked violent confrontations. Peru and Ecuador now jointly coordinate an internationally sponsored border integration project. The U.S. Government, as one of four guarantor states, actively facilitated the 1998 peace accord between Peru and Ecuador and remains committed to its implementation. The United States pledged $40 million to the Peru-Ecuador border integration project and another $4 million to support Peruvian and Ecuadorian demining efforts along their common border. In 2009, the United States committed an additional $3 million to Peru's humanitarian demining program.
In 1998, Peru became a member of APEC, facilitating closer ties and economic relations between Peru and Asian nations. Peru hosted the APEC summit in 2008 and is an active participant within the APEC forum.
Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and was a member of the Security Council in 2006 and 2007. Peruvian Javier Perez de Cuellar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991.
Peru maintains 210 troops in peacekeeping operations in Haiti under the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH).
Peru Additionalal Political Information
Relations were strained following the tainted re-election of former president Fujimori in June 2000, but improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of the government of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001. Currently, the United States enjoys strong and cooperative relations with Peru, and relations with President Humala's administration remain positive. The United States continues to promote the strengthening of democratic institutions and human rights safeguards in Peru, and the integration of Peru into the world economy.
The United States and Peru cooperate on efforts to interdict the flow of narcotics, particularly cocaine, to the United States. Bilateral programs now in effect reduce the flow of drugs through Peru's port systems, and ground interdiction and successful law enforcement operations are performed in tandem. These U.S. Government-supported law enforcement efforts complement an aggressive effort to establish an alternative development program for coca farmers in key coca growing areas to voluntarily reduce and eliminate coca cultivation. This effort is funded by the Department of State's Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).
U.S. investment and tourism in Peru have grown substantially in recent years. The U.S. remains Peru's number one trade partner, and economic and commercial ties have deepened with the 2009 implementation of the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement.
About 350,000 U.S. citizens visit Peru annually for business, tourism, and study. About 22,000 Americans reside in Peru, and more than 400 U.S. companies are represented in the country.
Principal U.S. Embassy Officials
Ambassador--Rose M. Likins
Deputy Chief of Mission--Michael J. Fitzpatrick
Director, USAID Mission--Richard Goughnour
Counselor for Political Affairs--Philip W. Kaplan
Counselor for Economic Affairs--David M. Schnier
Counselor for Narcotics Affairs (NAS)--Jeffrey M. Hovenier
Counselor for Public Affairs--Mary E. Drake
Counselor for Management Affairs--Eric Flohr
Counselor for Consular Affairs--Elizabeth Power
Commercial Counselor--Sheryl Pinckney-Mass
Naval and Defense Attache--CAPT. John Ries, USN
Chief, Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG)--COL. Carlos Berrios, USA
Army Attache--COL. Dennis Fiemeyer, USA
Air Attache--Col. Donald Schauber, USAF
Regional Agricultural Counselor--Emiko Purdy
Consular Agent, Cuzco--Eda Cores
The U.S. Embassy in Peru is located at Avenida Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Monterrico (Surco), Lima 33 (tel. (511) 434-3000; fax. (511) 434-3037. Home page: http://lima.usembassy.gov/
The Embassy is open from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday-Friday, except U.S. and some Peruvian holidays. The mailing address from the United States is American Embassy Lima, APO AA 34031 (use U.S. domestic postage rates). The American Citizen Services section is open daily to the public from 8:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.
The Consular Agency in Cuzco is located at Avenida Pardo
845, Cuzco (084)231-474 (office), (084)231-474 (fax) and (084) 962-1369 (emergency number). The USAID Building is located at Av. Encalada cdra. 17 s/n, Monterrico (Surco) Lima 33, tel. (511) 618-1200.
Other Contact Information
U.S. Department of State
Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs
Office of Andean Affairs (Room 4915)
2201 C Street NW
Washington, DC 20520-6263
Home Page: http://www.state.gov/
U.S. Department of Commerce
International Trade Administration
Office of Latin America and the Caribbean
14th and Constitution, NW
Washington, DC 20230
Tel: (202) 482-0475
Fax: (202) 482-0464
Home Page: http://trade.gov/
American Chamber of Commerce of Peru
Avenida Ricardo Palma 836, Miraflores
Lima 18, Peru
Tel: (511) 241-0708
Fax: (511) 241-0709
Home Page: http://www.amcham.org.pe/eng/
|1. Departamento de Ucayali|
2. Departamento de Tumbes
3. Departamento de San Martin
4. Departamento de Piura
5. Departamento de Loreto
6. Departamento de Lambayeque
7. Departamento de La Libertad
8. Departamento de Huanuco
9. Departamento de Cajamarca
|10. Departamento de Ancash|
11. Departamento de Amazonas
12. Departamento de Tacna
13. Departamento de Puno
14. Departamento de Pasco
15. Departamento de Moquegua
16. Departamento de Madre de Dios
17. Provincia de Lima
18. Departamento de Lima
|19. Departamento de Junin|
20. Departamento de Ica
21. Departamento de Huancavelica
22. Departamento de Cusco
23. Provincia Constitucional del Callao
24. Departamento de Ayacucho
25. Departamento de Arequipa
26. Departamento de Apurimac
|1. Lima 7,737,002|
2. Arequipa 841,130
3. Callao 813,264
4. Trujillo 747,450
5. Chiclayo 577,375
6. Iquitos 437,620
7. Huancayo 376,657
8. Piura 325,466
9. Chimbote 316,966
10. Cusco 312,140
11. Pucallpa 310,750
12. Tacna 280,098
13. Ica 246,844
14. Juliaca 245,675
15. Sullana 160,789
16. Chincha Alta 153,076
17. Huanuco 147,959
18. Ayacucho 140,033
19. Cajamarca 135,000
20. Puno 116,552
21. Tumbes 109,223
22. Talara 99,074
23. Chosica 88,606
24. Huaraz 86,934
25. Cerro de Pasco 78,910
26. Chulucanas 68,835
27. San Isidro 68,309
28. Huaral 62,174
29. Pisco 61,869
30. Catacaos 57,304
31. Paita 56,151
32. Abancay 55,111
33. Huacho 54,545
|34. Moquegua 54,517|
35. Ilo 53,476
36. Tingo Maria 53,177
37. Jaen 52,493
38. Tarma 51,350
39. Barranca 46,290
40. Moyobamba 44,276
41. Lambayeque 43,710
42. Picsi 43,610
43. Chepen 41,992
44. Yurimaguas 41,827
45. Huancavelica 41,576
46. Zana 39,200
47. Tambopata 38,966
48. Juanjui 37,715
49. Puerto Maldonado 37,543
50. La Union 34,834
51. Ferrenafe 34,357
52. Sicuani 33,575
53. La Oroya 33,345
54. Chocope 32,370
55. Nuevo Imperial 32,344
56. Imperial 32,344
57. Tambo Grande 30,033
58. La Rinconada 29,678
59. Pacasmayo 29,165
60. Tocache Nuevo 29,029
61. Mollendo 28,953
62. Chaupimarca 28,666
63. Paramonga 27,631
64. La Peca 27,045
65. Chancay 26,958
66. Hualmay 26,658
|67. Monsefu 25,707|
68. Marcavelica 25,645
69. San Vicente de Canete 25,517
70. Querecotillo 25,396
71. Guadalupe 25,376
72. Santa Ana 25,145
73. Rioja 25,057
74. Laredo 24,691
75. Nazca 23,556
76. Yanacancha 23,175
77. Sechura 23,020
78. Moche 22,581
79. Santiago de Cao 21,982
80. Huamachuco 21,768
81. Paijan 21,128
82. Jauja 21,057
83. Viru 20,774
84. Huaura 20,723
85. Bagua Grande 20,382
86. Chachapoyas 20,279
87. Ayaviri 19,310
88. Huanta 18,627
89. Uchiza 17,742
90. La Breita 17,693
91. Andahuaylas 17,444
92. Mala 17,260
93. Zarumilla 16,907
94. Camana 16,434
95. San Pedro de Lloc 16,250
96. Huarmey 16,172
97. Yunguyo 16,140
98. Chongoyape 16,061
99. Ilave 16,033
100. San Clemente 15,815